Civil Liability ConventionFrom 16 May 1998, shipowners will require two Civil Liability Convention (CLC) certificates in order to trade planet wide: a single certifying 1969 CLC liabilities, the other 1992 CLC liabilities. This Convention shall supersede any Convention in force or open for signature, ratification or accession at the date on which this Convention is opened for signature, but only to the extent that such Convention would be in conflict with it nonetheless, nothing at all in this short article shall impact the obligation of States Parties not party to this Convention arising below such Convention.

Thus, immediately after reading in a new (but ortodox) light the provison in short article 221, paragraph five, in combination with articles 220, paragraph six and 228 of UNCLOS, the judgment holds that, in case of serious harm to the marine atmosphere, national courts might impose penalties in accordance with their legislation, to give impact to … Read the rest >>>