Civil Liability ConventionThis Protocol extends the application of the 1969 Liability Convention to contain the exclusive financial zone of a Contracting State established in accordance with international law, or if a Contracting State has not established such a zone, in an region beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea of that State determined by that State in accordance with international law and extending not much more than 200 nautical miles from baseline from which the breadth of its territorial sea is measured (art. As soon as this Convention comes into force, the text shall be transmitted by the Secretary-Common to the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. They will need to acquire a certificate covering 1969 CLC liabilities from one more source in order to be permitted to enter the waters of States parties to the 1969 CLC.

The 1969 CLC entered into force in 1975 and lays down the principle of strict liability (i.e. liability even in the absence of fault) for tanker owners and creates a system of compulsory liability insurance coverage. Nothing in this Convention shall have an effect on the appropriate of the shipowner and the individual or persons giving insurance or other financial security to limit liability beneath any applicable national or international regime, such as the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 1976, as amended. The judgment of the Court of appeal of Paris was appealed in cassation by … Read the rest >>>

Civil Liability ConventionThe civil liability regime for ship-supply oil pollution enables national victims of oil spill harm to make monetary claims against domestic and non-domestic tanker owners and, in specific situations, the international oil cargo market. The 1971 Fund Convention offered for the payment of supplementary compensation to those who could not acquire full compensation for oil pollution harm under the 1969 CLC. The Canadian Government’s claim for charges and expenses incurred is presented to, and paid by, the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund. The consolidated text of CLC 1969, as modified by the 1992 Protocol, is referred to as the 1992 Civil Liability Convention.

See: Ibrahima, D. Recovering Harm to the Atmosphere per se Following an Oil Spill: the Shadows and Lights of the Civil Liability and Fund Conventions”, RECIEL, 14-1, 2005, p. 64. The Canadian compensation regime is based on the basic principle that the shipowner is mostly liable for oil pollution brought on by the ship. If the flag state was a celebration to each the 1969 and 1992 CLC the shipowner received in return a certificate certifying that the shipowner had in location insurance coverage covering liabilities beneath both conventions.

First, the Convention sets up an international civil liability scheme operating among the natural or legal persons impacted whose claims for compensation of pollution damage, if not settled otherwise, ought to be submitted to the competent national court of the State exactly where the polluting damage occurred or preventive measures were taken.

Payments of compensation and the administrative … Read the rest >>>

Civil Liability ConventionFollowing the Chernobyl accident, the IAEA initiated function on all aspects of nuclear liability with a view to improving the basic Conventions and establishing a comprehensive liability regime. The limitations of the international regime established by the IMO Conventions on civil liability for oil pollution harm, in particular with respect to compensation for environmental damage per se, have prompted actions ahead of national Courts searching for appropriate reparation from parties (other than the shipowner) involved in the operations of tankers in circumstances of catastrophic oil spills.

An examination of present international maritime practice shows that there are essential gaps in the regulation and implementation of responsibilities relating to pollution by vessels, especially in circumstances of catastrophic accidents such as these of the oil tankers Erika” in 1999 and Prestige” in 2002. When an incident involving two or a lot more ships happens and pollution damage outcomes therefrom, the shipowners of all the ships concerned, unless exonerated below write-up three, shall be jointly and severally liable for all such damage which is not reasonably separable. The CLC was adopted in 1969 but has since been superseded by the 1992 Protocol (CLC 92).

This Convention shall not apply to pollution harm as defined in the Civil Liability Convention, no matter if or not compensation is payable in respect of it under that Convention. The Supplementary Fund Protocol establishes the International Oil Pollution Compensation Supplementary Fund (the Supplementary Fund) to present compensation for victims who do not obtain complete compensation under the Civil … Read the rest >>>